Before Act 1 Scene 3

Before Act 1 Scene 3, Romeo and Juliet got married in private, as their two families had been rivals for years. If the families had found out about this secret arrangement, both Romeo and Juliet would have been disowned. This is an example of Shakespeare’s use of dramatic irony because in the play only the audience, along with two other characters – the friar and the nurse – knew that they were married.In Act 3 scene 1, Benvolio and Mercutio were in the public place in Verona. Benvolio tried to convince Mercutio to go home but he refused adamantly. Benvolio wanted to leave before Tybalt and the Capulets arrive but Mercutio refused. The Capulets arrived and Tybalt confronted Mercutio. But Tybalt did not intentionally seek Mercutio to quarrel with him; he wanted Romeo as he gatecrashed the Capulets’ party. Romeo arrived and saw Mercutio arguing with Tybalt. Romeo tried to keep the peace but Tybalt attacked him.Mercutio jumped in and started a fight with Tybalt. Romeo again tried to intervene but was not successful and Tybalt accidentally stabbed Mercutio and died. Tybalt, horrified at what he had done, ran off with the rest of the Capulets and Romeo gave chase. Romeo caught up with Tybalt and both of them had a duel. Romeo slayed Tybalt. Realizing what he had done, Romeo ran to the church where friar Lawrence consoled him. In the Town Square however, all the officials and the families of the deceased gathered together and the final judgement of the prince was to banish Romeo.In the play, this scene is a turning point, as the banishment of Romeo created a need for Juliet to escape Verona by the mock death plot in which Juliet would take a concoction that would intoxicate her and cause her to sleep for some days. Her parents would think her dead and bury her and when she awoke she would go and find Romeo. However, it was unsuccessful because the distance created a breakdown in the communication between the lovers because Romeo did not receive Juliet’s letter explaining her plan. The rumour spread and Romeo heard that Juliet was dead he believed it and poisoned himself, by her side.In the play, many of the characters are portrayed differently. Benvolio is portrayed as a pacifist who tries to keep the peace. We know this because in the film, when the Montague servants encounter the Capulet boys, and start a brawl, Benvolio tries to keep the peace. “I do but keep the peace. Put up thy sword, or manage it to part these men with me”.Tybalt on the other hand is often presented as an aggressive person for example in Act 1 Scene 1, his response to Benvolio’s plea to help stop the servants fighting is, “What… talk of peace? I hate the word, as I hate hell, all Montagues and thee.” But in Act 3 Scene 1 he is determined to fight Romeo but he is peaceful towards the other Montagues. When Romeo finally comes, Tybalt says, “Well peace be with you, sir: here comes my man.” Mercutio is portrayed as a belligerent joker who likes to show off. He even jokes at the hour of his death.”Ask for me tomorrow and you find me a grave man.” This shows that he is determined to maintain his honour even if he going to die and this is a pun because it means that he would be dead but what he meant that he would be a sober man. Romeo changes his characteristics quite a lot. At first he is portrayed as a hapless lover and dreamer who is hopeless in romance. ” Why, such love’s transgression; Griefs of mine own lie heavy in my breast.” He is then portrayed as a peacemaker in act 3 scene 1. “And so, good Capulet, which name I tender as dearly as my own, be satisfied.” This is dramatic irony once again as only the audience, the friar and the nurse know that Romeo and Juliet have got married but nobody else so Mercutio is shocked.The film is different from the play in many different ways. In the film, in Act 3 Scene 1, it is clear from the expression on Benvolio’s face (played by Dash Mikok) that he is apprehensive about the possibilities of impending violence. The audience sees the expression of his face as the Director (Baz Luhrman) shows a close up of Benvolio’s face to dramatise the anxiety that he is facing.When the Capulet boys arrive, they are dressed in black and they are armed which immediately shows that they want to cause trouble and are ready for a western ‘High Noon’ shootout. When the Capulet boys confront The Montague boys, Mercutio, being the provocateur that he is, mocks Tybalt and Baz Luhrman dramatises this part as the cameras spin round the two characters as Mercutio attempts to strike Tybalt.One of the most important parts of this scene is the part where Tybalt attacks Romeo. The director dramatises this by showing a close up of Tybalt savagely attacking Romeo who does not strike back. The other most important part of this scene is the part where Mercutio exclaims, ” A plague in both your houses!” In the play, Mercutio utters these words three times, but in the film he screams it out and it echoes over and over again. The weather changes from light and sunny but then it goes dark and cloudy and it starts to rain. This is dramatic as it is more powerful the way it sounds and the way Baz Luhrman used the weather to add effect is known as pathetic fallacy.The ending of the scene, when Romeo kills Tybalt, is very important as well. The weather (pathetic fallacy) is also gloomy in this part and when Tybalt and Romeo are driving, the director shows a close up of both their faces, which indicates that something bad is going to happen as they both have the same expression on their faces, which is that of anger and desperation. It is shown in slow motion as well and the director uses that to make it more powerful. When Romeo confronts Tybalt, He screams at him, “Either thou, or I, or both, must go with him!” This is dramatised as Romeo and Tybalt seem to be the only ones in the square and once again Baz Luhrman (director) uses pathetic fallacy to add to the tension.There are many people to blame for the death of Romeo and Juliet. Firstly there’s Tybalt: the impetuous, violent person, the leader of the Capulet boys. He wanted revenge for when Romeo gatecrashed the Capulet’s party and he is the play’s first murderer as he kills Mercutio. Another person to blame for the murder of Romeo and Juliet is Mercutio. If he had listened to the advice of Benvolio and had left the scene, he still would have been alive.Romeo is also to blame for his and Juliet’s death because he should have told everyone, including Tybalt, that he had married Juliet and this would have stopped Mercutio from getting angry. “Oh calm, dishonourable, vile submission!” Mercutio thought that Romeo was giving in to Tybalt’s beatings and this is why he was angry. Also if Tybalt had known, he wouldn’t have viciously attacked Romeo. Fate had the biggest hand in the whole play. Even if the lovers had avoided making all those mistakes, fate was out of their hands and each event and mishap in each scene built up to the tragic deaths of both Romeo and Juliet.This scene links up to the rest of the play as the main themes are love – Romeo and Rosaline and then Romeo and Juliet, hate – Tybalt and Romeo, Rivalry – Montagues and Capulets and fate – the death of the lovers. These are all found in the play and the film and they epitomise the play. This scene also shows the biggest duel of the Montague family and the Capulet family. But in the end they realise the wrong they have done and the loved ones that they have lost. Without this scene the play would not have been as powerful because all the previous scenes build up towards this scene. If this scene was not in the play, the ending wouldn’t be so climaxed and dramatised and tragic.The reaction of an Elizabethan audience would be different because during the Elizabethan period, they valued honour and pride greatly and the scene when Romeo gate-crashed the Capulets’ party and wounded Tybalt’s pride would have caused a negative effect on an Elizabethan audience but it would not cause any effect on today’s audience.

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Before Act 1 Scene 3, Romeo and Juliet got married in private, as their two families had been rivals for years. If the families had found out about this secret arrangement, both Romeo and Juliet would have been disowned. This is an example of Shakespeare’s use of dramatic irony because in the play only the audience, along with two other characters – the friar and the nurse – knew that they were married.In Act 3 scene 1, Benvolio and Mercutio were in the public place in Verona. Benvolio tried to convince Mercutio to go home but he refused adamantly. Benvolio wanted to leave before Tybalt and the Capulets arrive but Mercutio refused. The Capulets arrived and Tybalt confronted Mercutio. But Tybalt did not intentionally seek Mercutio to quarrel with him; he wanted Romeo as he gatecrashed the Capulets’ party. Romeo arrived and saw Mercutio arguing with Tybalt. Romeo tried to keep the peace but Tybalt attacked him.

Mercutio jumped in and started a fight with Tybalt. Romeo again tried to intervene but was not successful and Tybalt accidentally stabbed Mercutio and died. Tybalt, horrified at what he had done, ran off with the rest of the Capulets and Romeo gave chase. Romeo caught up with Tybalt and both of them had a duel. Romeo slayed Tybalt. Realizing what he had done, Romeo ran to the church where friar Lawrence consoled him. In the Town Square however, all the officials and the families of the deceased gathered together and the final judgement of the prince was to banish Romeo.In the play, this scene is a turning point, as the banishment of Romeo created a need for Juliet to escape Verona by the mock death plot in which Juliet would take a concoction that would intoxicate her and cause her to sleep for some days. Her parents would think her dead and bury her and when she awoke she would go and find Romeo. However, it was unsuccessful because the distance created a breakdown in the communication between the lovers because Romeo did not receive Juliet’s letter explaining her plan. The rumour spread and Romeo heard that Juliet was dead he believed it and poisoned himself, by her side.In the play, many of the characters are portrayed differently. Benvolio is portrayed as a pacifist who tries to keep the peace. We know this because in the film, when the Montague servants encounter the Capulet boys, and start a brawl, Benvolio tries to keep the peace. “I do but keep the peace. Put up thy sword, or manage it to part these men with me”. Tybalt on the other hand is often presented as an aggressive person for example in Act 1 Scene 1, his response to Benvolio’s plea to help stop the servants fighting is, “What… talk of peace? I hate the word, as I hate hell, all Montagues and thee.” But in Act 3 Scene 1 he is determined to fight Romeo but he is peaceful towards the other Montagues.When Romeo finally comes, Tybalt says, “Well peace be with you, sir: here comes my man.” Mercutio is portrayed as a belligerent joker who likes to show off. He even jokes at the hour of his death. “Ask for me tomorrow and you find me a grave man.” This shows that he is determined to maintain his honour even if he going to die and this is a pun because it means that he would be dead but what he meant that he would be a sober man.Romeo changes his characteristics quite a lot. At first he is portrayed as a hapless lover and dreamer who is hopeless in romance. ” Why, such love’s transgression; Griefs of mine own lie heavy in my breast.” He is then portrayed as a peacemaker in act 3 scene 1. “And so, good Capulet, which name I tender as dearly as my own, be satisfied.” This is dramatic irony once again as only the audience, the friar and the nurse know that Romeo and Juliet have got married but nobody else so Mercutio is shocked.The film is different from the play in many different ways. In the film, in Act 3 Scene 1, it is clear from the expression on Benvolio’s face (played by Dash Mikok) that he is apprehensive about the possibilities of impending violence. The audience sees the expression of his face as the Director (Baz Luhrman) shows a close up of Benvolio’s face to dramatise the anxiety that he is facing. When the Capulet boys arrive, they are dressed in black and they are armed which immediately shows that they want to cause trouble and are ready for a western ‘High Noon’ shootout. When the Capulet boys confront The Montague boys, Mercutio, being the provocateur that he is, mocks Tybalt and Baz Luhrman dramatises this part as the cameras spin round the two characters as Mercutio attempts to strike Tybalt.One of the most important parts of this scene is the part where Tybalt attacks Romeo. The director dramatises this by showing a close up of Tybalt savagely attacking Romeo who does not strike back. The other most important part of this scene is the part where Mercutio exclaims, ” A plague in both your houses!” In the play, Mercutio utters these words three times, but in the film he screams it out and it echoes over and over again. The weather changes from light and sunny but then it goes dark and cloudy and it starts to rain. This is dramatic as it is more powerful the way it sounds and the way Baz Luhrman used the weather to add effect is known as pathetic fallacy.The ending of the scene, when Romeo kills Tybalt, is very important as well. The weather (pathetic fallacy) is also gloomy in this part and when Tybalt and Romeo are driving, the director shows a close up of both their faces, which indicates that something bad is going to happen as they both have the same expression on their faces, which is that of anger and desperation. It is shown in slow motion as well and the director uses that to make it more powerful. When Romeo confronts Tybalt, He screams at him, “Either thou, or I, or both, must go with him!” This is dramatised as Romeo and Tybalt seem to be the only ones in the square and once again Baz Luhrman (director) uses pathetic fallacy to add to the tension.There are many people to blame for the death of Romeo and Juliet. Firstly there’s Tybalt: the impetuous, violent person, the leader of the Capulet boys. He wanted revenge for when Romeo gatecrashed the Capulet’s party and he is the play’s first murderer as he kills Mercutio. Another person to blame for the murder of Romeo and Juliet is Mercutio. If he had listened to the advice of Benvolio and had left the scene, he still would have been alive.Romeo is also to blame for his and Juliet’s death because he should have told everyone, including Tybalt, that he had married Juliet and this would have stopped Mercutio from getting angry. “Oh calm, dishonourable, vile submission!” Mercutio thought that Romeo was giving in to Tybalt’s beatings and this is why he was angry. Also if Tybalt had known, he wouldn’t have viciously attacked Romeo. Fate had the biggest hand in the whole play. Even if the lovers had avoided making all those mistakes, fate was out of their hands and each event and mishap in each scene built up to the tragic deaths of both Romeo and Juliet.This scene links up to the rest of the play as the main themes are love – Romeo and Rosaline and then Romeo and Juliet, hate – Tybalt and Romeo, Rivalry – Montagues and Capulets and fate – the death of the lovers. These are all found in the play and the film and they epitomise the play. This scene also shows the biggest duel of the Montague family and the Capulet family. But in the end they realise the wrong they have done and the loved ones that they have lost. Without this scene the play would not have been as powerful because all the previous scenes build up towards this scene. If this scene was not in the play, the ending wouldn’t be so climaxed and dramatised and tragic.The reaction of an Elizabethan audience would be different because during the Elizabethan period, they valued honour and pride greatly and the scene when Romeo gate-crashed the Capulets’ party and wounded Tybalt’s pride would have caused a negative effect on an Elizabethan audience but it would not cause any effect on today’s audience.

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