These verses of Surah al Anaam discuss the fundamental Quranic theme of Allah in Himself. We come to know about the absolute authority and unity of Allah. He does not have partners and the entire universe is the creation of His will and design.It further describes that God is beyond human comprehension. This is because of the great difference between the creator and the creatures.It tells us that God is the most powerful and He can decide the outcome of events even before they occur.Distinctive Theme:These verses distinctively highlight God’s attributes and His sovereignty. Ayat al Kursi (the Verse of Throne) (Ch 2: Vs 255) also presents the same theme but this passage refers to God as the originator and the fashioner of the whole Universe with its vast and flawless system.It rejects polytheism and makes us realize that God is free from all physical relations. The Quran refers to it in Surah al Ikhlas,”He begets not nor is He begotten.” (Ch 112: Vs 3)’Latif’ means as fine and subtle as to be invisible and imperceptible to the senses. It also means that God understands the finest mysteries.Surah Shura:Main Theme:This Quranic passage discusses the Main Theme: of God’s power, majesty and His ultimate authority over all that exists in this Universe.It informs us that everything in the Universe acknowledges is power and supremacy by praising Him.It further discusses that God’s attributes of forgiveness and mercifulness are for those who repent and turn to Him for their forgiveness.Distinctive Theme:These verses distinctively signify God’s omnipotence, which encompasses ‘the heaven and the Earth’. Nothing can take place in the Universe without His permission.There is nothing is the system of the Universe who equals God in His attributes and sovereignty. We also understand that everything in this Universe is a humble creature of God.It inculcates the belief of God’s greatness, uniqueness and authority. The Quran says,”To Him belongs the sovereignty of Heavens and Earth.” (Ch 48: Vs 14)It makes us realize that forgiveness is granted only to those who seek it with humbleness and devotion, and even the Angels supplicate and pray for their forgiveness by praising Allah.Surah al Anaam (Ch 6 : Vs 75-79):o Main Theme:These verses of Surah al Anaam tell us about Prophet Ibrahim’s understanding of the concept of oneness of Allah after observing the heavenly bodies such as sun, stars and the moon.He recognized God as the Master Lord who is free from all limitations and weaknesses and decided that He alone should be praised and worshipped.We come to know about Ibrahim’s declaration of truth to his people and his rejection of polytheism.o Distinctive Theme:These verses present the fundamental Quranic theme of God’s relationship with His messengers and show the exalted status of Ibrahim.Many verses of the Quran discuss the same theme (Ch 5: Vs 110) but these verses talk about Ibrahim’s recognition of God without any angel or scripture.The Quran says,”And Remember Ibrahim was tried by his Lord with certain commands which he fulfilled. He said, ‘I will make you an Imam to the people.'” (Ch 2: Vs 124)Ibrahim’s adoration of heavenly bodies does not mean that he worshipped them instead; it shows that he pondered over them and realized they were not worthy worship.Surah Zilzaal (Ch 99):Main Theme:This Quranic passage depicts the last day and end of time when everything will be destroyed by a tremendous and a more far-reaching convulsion than any earthquake we know. The Quran says,”When the earth is flattened out and throws out whatever it contains and gets empty.”He recognized God as the Master Lord who is free from all limitations and weaknesses and decided that He alone should be praised and worshipped.We come to know about Ibrahim’s declaration of truth to his people and his rejection of polytheism.Distinctive Theme:These verses present the fundamental Quranic theme of God’s relationship with His messengers and show the exalted status of Ibrahim.Many verses of the Quran discuss the same theme (Ch 5: Vs 110) but these verses talk about Ibrahim’s recognition of God without any angel or scripture.The Quran says,”And Remember Ibrahim was tried by his Lord with certain commands which he fulfilled. He said, ‘I will make you an Imam to the people.'” (Ch 2: Vs 124)Ibrahim’s adoration of heavenly bodies does not mean that he worshipped them instead; it shows that he pondered over them and realized they were not worthy worship.Surah An Nas (Ch 99):Main Theme:This passage concludes the Quran. It describes the fundamental Koranic theme of God’s relation with the created world. For this reason, threefold relation in which man stands to God is explained.God is the Cherisher and sustainer of all mankind and provides all the necessities and protection. He is the supreme authority and He alone will decide between the righteous and unrighteous in the hereafter.It warns us especially against secret whispers of evil within our own hearts since God is most powerful of all, therefore, only he can protect humans from all kinds of evils especially the internal ones.Distinctive Theme:This passage is closely related to Surah al Falaq (Ch 113) and both were revealed at the same time. Both these passages mention the necessity of seeking God’s protection against all sources of evil. In this passage, the need of god’s protection from internal factor is pointed out.”Whisperers” refers to Satan and his followers who mislead humans almost without their noticing them.We understand that evil can lead us astray as a result of the satanic guiles. So long as we put ourselves in quartz protection, and trust in God, evil cannot really touch in our lives.Surah Al Duha:Main Theme:This Quranic passage Surah Al Duha tells us about God’s relationship with His messengers.It was revealed in the dark period of the outer life of the prophet(S) whom due to an interval in the revelations was mocked by the pagans.God gave reassurance to the Prophet(S) that He was always with him even when He seemed not to be. His assurance of this was proved by His past actions of giving him shelter, guidance and financial independence.Since god assisted the Prophet(S), he should assist those who seek help from him and should continue to live as God taught him.o Distinctive Theme:This Surah is closely related to Surah’s 91, 92, and the imagery drawn from the contrast of the day and night is common to all three,”By the night when it comes over the day it shines forth.” (Ch 92: Vs 1-2)This passage distinctively refers to the vicissitudes of human life and gives a message of hope and consolation.”Akhira” (the hereafter) refers not only to the life after death but also to the soul of goodness of things that is attainable in this worldly life.We understand that out feeling of doubt, suffering will vanish, and we shall have a sense of complete satisfaction if out will is according to the will of God.Surah Al Baqarah:Main Theme:These verses of Surah al Baqarah tell us that God is the creator of all mankind and the purpose of creation is obedience and servitude to his commands.We come to know that God alone is the cherisher nourisher and sustainer for all that exists. Therefore, he alone should be praised and worshipped and no partners should be associated with him.Distinctive Theme:These verses discuss the theme of Allah’s relationship with the created world. We understand that our relationship with God is that of the Lord and slaves who are subservient to him.Many verses of the Quran discuss the same theme (Ch 51: Vs 8) and (Ch 6: Vs 12) but these verses, but these verses particularly use the symbols of land, heavens and rain to as the source of the protection and nourishment given by God to humans for their sustenance. Qurans says,”Praise to be Allah, the cherisher and sustainer of the worlds.” (Ch 1: Vs 2)Describe the social conditions in Arabia during the Age of Ignorance. (Jahaliyyah)Outline the religious beliefs and practices of the Arabs before Islam.Give a detailed account of the conditions of Arabia at the time of the first revelation.Write an account of any two of the following episodes in the life of Prophet Muhammad.Meeting with BahiraKhadijah’s proposal of marriageAt that time there live in Makkah, a wealthy and respectable widow, Khadija, daughter of Khuwalid, who was the great grandson of Qussai. She was forty years old and twice widowed. She had two sons and a daughter from her previous marriages. Because of her exceptional character, she was known as Tahira, the pious one.She was impressed by the honesty and goodness of Hazrat Muhammad(S). She requested Him(S) to taker her merchandise to Syria against a share in the profits. She also sent her slave Maisara with him. He returned from Syria with good profits. Maisara also spoke of his fair dealings to Hazrat Khadija.She was so pleased that she herself made an offer of marriage to him. Abu Talib accepted the proposal on behalf of Holy Prophet(S) and shortly, thereafter, he married Hazrat Khadija. Hazrat Khadija was 40, while the Prophet(S) was 25 at the time of marriage. The union was successful. They had two sons and four daughters. Both the sons died in infancy. Of the daughter, only the youngest, Hazrat Fatima survived the Holy Prophet(S).Replacing the black stoneWrite an outline of the life of the Prophet Muhammad up to the time of the first revelation.Give an account of the Prophet’s first experience of receiving revelation.Nearing the age of 40 Prophet(S) started retiring in solitude because He(S) was disturbed by the polytheistic practices of the pagans of Makkah and often thought of God of his ancestors Ibrahim and Ismail. He did not follow any particular method of worship, because he was not aware of any but realized that there is a force of truth beyond this world, which must have power and control over the whole universe.One day at the age of 40, towards the end of Ramazan, on the night of power in 610 AD a being unknown to Him(S) but later identified as Gibrael appeared. Angel Jibrael then hugged Him(S) and asked Him(S) to read. The Holy Prophet(S) startled by the strange voice answered: ‘I cannot read.” The angel then again seized Him(S) and asked Him(S) to read but the Prophet(S) gave the same reply. On the third time afraid of being squeezed asked: “What shall I read?” The angel then recited the following verses:Proclaim in the name of Thy Lord and CherisherWho CreatedCreated man, out of a mere clot of congealed bloodProclaim! And thy Lord most bountiful.He who taught (the use of) the pen.Taught man which he knew not. (96: 1-5)Prophet(S) recited the verses after the angel and the words were imprinted on his mind.Prophet(S) was greatly shaken by this experience and he ran out of the cave. Suddenly, he heard a voice and raising his head in the sky he saw the same angel in the form of a man filling the whole horizon and saying,”O Muhammad! You are the messenger of Allah and I am Jibrael.”After that experience, he came home a bit shaken at his selection for and great and noble mission. He feared the thought of the huge and tremendous task of this mission. He narrated the incident two Hazrat Khadija. She comforted him and assured him that no harm would come to a man of his nature and Allah would protect him from all evils. Then she took him to her cousin, Warqa bin Naufal, who was a scholarly person and had embraced Christianity.After hearing what had happened to her husband at the mount of Hira, he said that it was the angel Jibrael who had brought revelations to previous messengers of God. He also informed her that his enemies would turn the new prophet out of the city.Explain the significance of the actions of the angel and Warqa bin Nawfal in this event.The angel was performing the duty he had previously performed with other messenger of bringing revelations from God to his chosen people.Write an account of the major difficulties encountered by the Prophet(S) and his followers during the years when they live in Makkah. (10)Trace the major stages in the compilation of the Quran in the time of the caliphs Abu Bakr and Usman. (10)At the time of Prophet(S)’s death no official copy of the Quran existed. During the Khilafat of Hazrat Abu Bakr, some people in the country declared themselves prophets, among them was Musailma. Hazrat Abu Bakr waged a war against him know as the battle of Yamamah and in the battle 70 memorizers of the Quran were killed.Hazrat Umar realized that those who had memorized the Quran would gradually depart from the world either owing to natural death or martyrdom in future battles. It was necessary to devise a system to preserve the Quran for future generations or else it would meet the same fate as the previous scriptures.Hazrat Umar suggested to Hazrat Abu Bakr that the Quran should be written down for safety but Hazrat Abu Bakr was reluctant because this had not been done under the Holy Prophet(S) but later agreed when he realized the importance of compilation. He called for Zaid bin Sabit who was reluctant initially but later agreed to accomplish this task.A commission was appointed and headed by Zaid bin Sabit who was the chief. Zaid bin Sabit traced out and collected the chapters of the Quran from every person who had it in their possession. He collected it from palm leaves, stones, and pieces of wood and people who had committed it to memory. He also verified the versed from people who had heard it from the Holy Prophet(S) and verified it from his own memory.The script prepared by Zaid bin Sabit remained with the first Khalifa and after his death was transferred to the custody of Hazrat Umar. After his death, the script was transferred to Hazrat Hafsa, a widow of the Holy Prophet(S) and this copy of the Quran came to be known as Mashaf-e-Hafsa.Under the Caliphate of Hazrat Usman it became known that different dialects of the Quran were being circulated. Hazrat Anas came to know about it, went to Hazrat Usman, and requested him to take immediate action.Hazrat Usman got the original copy prepared by Zaid bin Sabit from Hazrat Hafsa and gave him the responsibility to make copies of the original Quran. He was helped by three memorizers, which were Abdullah bin Zubair, Abdur Rehman bin Harris and Saad bin Aas.Give a detailed account of the Prophet(S)’s visit to Al-Taif.The Quraish increased their attacks against the Holy Prophet(S) because his worst enemy had become the chief of Banu Hashim. This new situation meant that he could no longer stay in Makkah with any hope of success. Before things became too critical, he had to explore new avenues in his search for support. So, accompanied by his adopted son and freed slave, Zaid bin Haris, he set out for Taif, to preach the Divine Message to its people.Saqeef, the second largest tribe in Arabia, populated Taif. As he began his journey, he was full of hope that if they responded favorably it would signify a new phase in the history of Islam.In Taif, the Holy Prophet(S) approached the chiefs calling upon them to believe in Allah and to support him in his efforts to establish Islam; but none gave him a favorable response. They asked Him(S) to leave the town but the Prophet(S) did not lose hope and continued his preaching to common people of Taif. The chiefs got infuriated and they set upon him a crowd of teenagers to follow him and shout abuses at him. They even threw stones at him. He was so badly wounded that his shoes were filled with blood. Zaid tried hard to defend and protect him for the stones. In trying to shield the Holy Prophet his head was badly wounded. The mob followed them until they were driven to the outskirts of the city.The Holy Prophet(S) then sought refuge in an orchard that belonged to 2 brothers who although opposed to Islam and to the Holy Prophet(S) felt sorry for him. They sent their Christian slave with a bunch of grapes for him. While resting in the orchard the angel Jibrael appeared with the angel of mountains and sought to Prophet(S) permission to destroy the town by crushing it under the mountains. The Prophet(S) refused to do so by saying, “Why should I pay for the destruction of these people? I hope that the posterity will certainly be among the believers in one Allah.”The Prophet(S) also played for the guidance and forgiveness of the people of Al-Taif in these words, “O Allah! Forgive them and guide them for they do not know who I am and What I say. I was sent as a blessing for all the worlds…………….”Afterwards the Holy Prophet(S) set out on his journey back to Makkah.What lessons can Muslims today learn from the Prophet(S)’s conduct in this event?The Prophet(S) tried to find a realistic solution to his difficulties in Makkah by looking for a new center for religious teaching. He(S) did not try to resist the people of Al-Taif when they rejected and persecuted Him(S), which shows that aggression against aggression is not the best solution.He(S) responded to cruelty with forgiveness, which shows that we should not take revenge despite having the power to do so. He(S) also attempted to understand the people’s ignorance and did not curse them. Muslims today especially the preachers of religion should learn from the Prophet(S)’s example. They should be firm and steadfast and should not be discouraged by rejection or mockery.Give a description to the main events that took place during the Prophet (S) night journey.Explaining the importance of this event in the Islamic history.This event carries great importance in the history of Islam. It shows the exalted status of Prophet (S) as a divine messenger. Abu Bakr got the title of ‘Al Siddique’ (Testifier to the Good) when he expressed belief in this event. Regularly daily prayer was made obligatory as the second pillar of Islam. It also proved to be people around him that He (S) was a true messenger of God.Explain why he thought it important to make the journey to Madinah? (4)The Holy Prophet(S)’s life was in danger in Makkah. The Quraish were constantly finding ways to kill or torture him. As his uncle Abu Talib was dead, he did not have any clan protection. Very few people had converted to Islam in Makkah and so he had very little success. Many people from Madinah had arrived and had accepted the message of Islam and they had told the Prophet(S) to come to Madinah where everyone would accept him. As very few people accepted Islam, he could not put the teaching he received into effect and if he migrated to Madinah where people would accept him, he would have been able to put the teachings into effect. Islam was in danger in Makkah as Prophet Muhammad(S) and his followers were persecuted and if they had died Islam would perish.